Suicide is the act by which a person deliberately causes one’s own death. It has had a dramatic increase among the teenagers in recent times. Every year thousands of teenagers commit suicide. Usually it is the result of despair, arising from or attributable to a physical illness, mental illness, such as depression, bipolar disorder, schizophrenia, borderline personality disorder, alcoholism or substance abuse. For some teens, suicide appears to be a solution to their problems and stress.There is always a grave issue or problem behind suicides which we need to end in order to minimize suicide rates in the society.
From despair to physical or mental illness, and from depression to alcoholism, there are various reasons that lead teenagers to commit suicide. Teenagers experience strong feelings of stress, confusion, self-doubt, pressure to succeed, financial uncertainty, and other fears while growing up. For some teens divorce, the formation of a new family with stepparents and siblings, or moving to a new community can be unsettling and can intensify doubts about themselves. . In addition, socio-economic problems such as unemployment, poverty, homelessness and discrimination may trigger suicidal thoughts. (Dublin, 2001). Compared with the general population, gamblers have a higher suicide ideation and a greater number of suicide attempts; between 12 to 24% of pathological gamblers have tried to end their lives. In the wives of the gamblers, the suicide rate is three times higher compared to the general population. Other factors that increase the risk in problem gamblers are mental illness and substance abuse. (Jopling, 1851)On the other hand, veterans have a higher risk of suicide due in part to a higher incidence of mental illness and health problems related to the war.
Often it influences various stressors such as financial difficulties or problems in interpersonal relationships. Suicide methods vary by country and are partly related to availability. The most common are hanging, poisoning by pesticides or handling firearms.
Past decades have seen a sharp surge in the number of suicides. In the United States, for example, suicide is the third most common cause of death for young people aged 15 to 24 years of age, and the sixth leading cause of death for those aged 5 to 14 years. Suicide was the cause of death of 842 000 people in 2013, a considerable increase compared to 712,000 deaths for this reason in 1990. (Jopling, 1851)Therefore, suicide is the tenth leading cause of death worldwide. It is more common in men than in women; the first are three to four times more likely to commit suicide than the latter. It is estimated that every year 10 to 20 million suicide attempts are done. Failed attempts can lead to injuries and long-term disabilities. Meanwhile, attempts are more common in young women.
In spite of the ever-growing suicides, certain measures have been taken to avert them. Among thesemeasures are: limiting access methods, such as firearms and poisons, treatment of the underlying mental illness or substance abuse and improving financial conditions. Although the lines are common crisis, there is little evidence on their effectiveness. Ever since I lost a dear friend to this evil of suicide, I was compelled to look into the causes that may lead to suicide and the countermeasures being taken to prevent suicides. (Brown, 2002)
There is an association between suicide holdings and health problems such as chronic pain, traumatic brain injury, cancer, kidney failure (requiring hemodialysis), AIDS and systemic lupus erythematosus. The diagnosis of cancer doubles the subsequent risk of suicide. In Japan, health problems are recognized as the main reason for suicide. Moreover, sleep disorders such as insomnia or sleep apnea are also risk factors for depression and suicide. In some cases, sleep disorders can be an independent risk factor for depression. (Brown, 2002)(Strosahl, 1992) Other medical conditions can present with similar mood disorder symptoms, including hyperthyroidism, Alzheimer’s, brain tumors, systemic lupus erythematosus and adverse effects of certain drugs (such as beta blockers and steroids).
In extenuating situations, suicide can be used as a method of escape. Such was the case of some prisoners of Nazi concentration camps, who committed suicide by touching the electrified fences. Certain psychological states can increase the risk of suicide: hopelessness, anhedonia, depression and anxiety. (Dublin, 2001) It also influences a poor ability to solve problems, loss of skills and formerly had little impulse control. In older adults, the perception of being a burden to others is important. The product of a “poor integration into society” suicide is called “selfish suicide.”
Various stresses of life, like the loss of a family member or friend, a job or social isolation (such as living alone), increase the risk of suicide. Also, people who have never married have a higher risk, on the contrary, being religious can reduce it. This has been attributed to negative perceptions of many religions on suicide and the interrelation that religion can provide.
Some people choose suicide to escape situations such as bullying or prejudice. (Strosahl, 1992)A history of childhood sexual abuse and temporary welcomed are also risk factors. It is believed that sexual abuse contributes about 20% of the total risk. From an evolutionary point of view, an explanation of suicide is that this helps inclusive fitness, what happens if the suicide is a person who cannot have more children, so that by committing suicide, avoid stealing resources their family members. An objection to this theory is that the deaths of healthy adolescents do not help the inclusive fitness. Poverty is also related. Increasing relative poverty compared to those around the individual, increases the risk. Nearly 200,000 farmers in India have committed suicide since 1997 partly due to financial problems. In China, suicide is three times higher in rural regions. It is believed to be partly due to economic difficulties in these areas of the country. (Stephenson, 2002)
Some studies correlate economic crisis with increased suicide deaths. One study found that each point increase in unemployment is associated with an increase of 0.79% in the rates of suicide in less than age people. According to the World Health Organization, mental problems, excessive alcohol intake and suicide increase during economic downturns. (Dublin, 2001) Suicide is more common in areas of high socioeconomic deprivation, unemployment and social fragmentation, so that social protection is fundamental to the amelioration of mental problems during economic crisis. According to European countries, unemployment does not increase suicide rates if annual spending on welfare programs is greater than $ 190 per person.
The media, like the Internet, are important risk factors. The way suicide, with a prominent, repetitive coverage that glorifies high volume and idealizes described, has a negative effect. When detailed descriptions of a method of suicide are performed using this method may increase in the population. This triggers the so-called Werther effect, which takes its name from the protagonist of the novel The Sorrows of Young Werther by Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, whose suicide was emulated by many fans of the book. (Brown, 2002)The risk is greater in adolescents who may incline to idealize death. The opposite effect, the proposed Papageno effect in which coverage of effective coping strategies may have a preventive effect, is based on the name of the character in The Magic Flute by Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart, who, fearing the loss of a loved one; He plans to kill himself until he is assisted by his friends. When the media follow the recommended guidelines, the risk of suicide may decrease. However, getting support from industry can be difficult, especially long-term.
Rational suicide is suicide “coldly decided by a person receiving adequate palliative care and moral support for their disease.” The act of deliberately provoked death benefit of others is called “altruistic suicide”. An example is the suicide of an elderly person to leave a greater amount of food to younger people in the community. In some Eskimo cultures, suicide is seen as an act of respect, courage or wisdom. Moreover, the suicide attack is a political action in which one or more attackers carried out a violent attack against other individuals on the understanding that the result will be their own death. Some are motivated by the desire to become martyrs. Also, the kamikaze missions are carried out as a duty to a higher cause or moral obligation. Murder-suicide is the act in which a murder is succeeded in less than a week by suicide of the murderer.
Ordinarily, the collective suicide is under social pressure on communities where members give up their autonomy to a leader.Meanwhile, when two people agree to take their own life at the same time is called “suicide pact”. In extenuating situations where continuing life becomes intolerable, some people choose suicide as a method of escape. Some prisoners of Nazi concentration camps committed suicide by touching the electrified fences.
Suicide can often be in the interest and our duty to us, no one can recognize the dispute that age, illness or misfortune can make life a burden, and make worse than annihilation. I believe that no man ever got rid of a life that was worth preserving. For such is our horror of death as trivial reasons can never be reconciled with it; and although perhaps property status or health of a man seemed not claim such remedy, at least we can be sure that whoever was used for no apparent reason, had to be afflicted with a mood and depraved sad to the point of poisoning him pleasure, and make it as miserable as if he had been overwhelmed with the cruelest misfortunes. If suicide is supposed to be a crime, then only cowardice can take us there. If it is not a crime, both prudence and courage should engage us to rid ourselves quickly of life when it becomes a burden. This is the only way to be useful to society, showing an example which, if followed, would retain everyone a chance to be happy in life, and effectively liberate from danger of misfortune.
Suicide prevention encompasses collective efforts to reduce the incidence of suicide through preventive measures. One way to reduce risk is to limit access to certain methods, such as firearms and poisons. (Isacsson 2000) Other measures include reducing access to charcoal and barriers on bridges and subway platforms. It can also be effective treatment of addictions such as alcohol or drugs, diseases such as depression, and people with previous suicide attempts. It has been proposed reducing access to alcohol as a preventative strategy (as well as reduces the number of bars). Although the crisis lines are common, there is little evidence to support or refute their effectiveness. In young adults with suicidal thoughts, cognitive behavioral therapy can help improve results. Economic development through its ability to reduce poverty may be able to reduce suicide rates. They may also be effective measures to increase social connection especially in elderly men. (Isacsson 2000) The World Suicide Prevention Day is celebrated every September 10 with the support of the International Association for Suicide Prevention and the World Health Organization.