In simpler terms, abnormality refers to a certain behavior that does not fit in the category of normality. It can be defined as unusual behavior against the norms, inadequate functioning, or noticeable psychological problems. There are no specific criteria for it. Because of this, certain normal behavior in one culture may seem abnormal in another culture.
The word ‘Abnormal’ does not mean one is not well or has some problem. It can be used for extraordinary skills or impossibly do a thing and still survives i.e., for exceptions. The only problem is that this term is subjective, and it is based on the judgment of people. What you think is normal, maybe abnormal for another person. While diagnosis, it becomes a real challenge.
Abnormality, according to psychology, refers to abnormal behavior. Abnormal behavior can be due to environment, social, physical, biological disturbance.
Abnormality according to different perspectives:
Biological perspective of Abnormality:
According to the biological perspective, the abnormality is defined as improper functioning of organs, organ system of the body. It underlines the issues that are related to the internal mechanism. This type of abnormality is related to the anatomy or physiology of humans. Biological abnormality is diagnosed by the symptoms and then are treated with medication or giving medical treatment.
Norms and culture define normality and abnormality. Every individual, society, culture defines abnormality as the deviation from the normal path. If the behavior of a person violating the standard norms or is against respect to cultural aspects, then the abnormality falls from a socio-cultural perspective. The abnormal behaviors produced due to the cultural or social norms are treated with the socio-cultural approach.
Aberrant thinking patterns, problem-solving techniques, and reasoning come in the abnormalities that are related to cognitive perspective abnormalities. Abnormal behaviors due to false assumptions, thoughts, etc. are discussed in the cognitive approach category.
When the main causes of abnormalities linked with the unconscious conflict or unresolved problems, these problems are then defined as psychodynamic abnormalities. Sigmund Freud has explained these abnormalities and gave theories and therapies for treatment. These abnormalities may lead to severe mental illnesses.
In the behavioral perspective term, the abnormality is abnormal behavior, and the major cause is improper, inadequate, false, and incomplete learning and conditioning. Behavioral perspective is related to the diagnosis and treatment of abnormal behavior. Behaviorists view that a person can act in a normal and abnormal way, and that depends on its learning patterns.
According to the humanistic perspective, the abnormality is false or improper knowledge of the self. This kind of abnormality linked with all the above perspectives. But the main cause of this is self. Humanists argue that a person can control the external factor by controlling its self.
A branch is there in psychology that is known as abnormal psychology which deals with the abnormal behavior of a person and finds out the true causes by viewing the behavior from all perspectives.
It is not appropriate to label a certain behavior or person abnormal without knowing the circumstances and cultural norms. It is a judgmental act, and it is a very negative act. Thus, before labeling first know that cause, then finds the treatment and let the person live a normal life.